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OECD. List of jurisdictions providing Residence/Citizenship by investment schemes

"Citizenship by Investment" (CBI) and "Residence by Investment" (RBI) schemes are being offered by a substantial number of jurisdictions (Malta, Cyprus, Qatar, Panama, UAE, etc) and allow foreign individuals to obtain citizenship or temporary or permanent residence rights on the basis of local investments or against a flat fee.

Individuals may be interested in these schemes for a number of legitimate reasons, including the wish to start a new business in the jurisdiction, greater mobility thanks to visa-free travel, etc. At the same time, information released in the market place and obtained through the OECD's Common Reporting Standard (CRS) public disclosure facility, highlights the abuse of CBI/RBI schemes to circumvent reporting under the CRS.

OECD said that the residence and citizenship by investment CBI/RBI schemes can also be potentially misused to hide individual’s assets offshore by escaping reporting under the OECD/G20 Common Reporting Standard (CRS). In particular, Identity Cards and other documentation obtained through CBI/RBI schemes can potentially be misused abuse to misrepresent an individual’s jurisdiction(s) of tax residence and to endanger the proper operation of the CRS due diligence procedures.

Potentially high-risk CBI/RBI schemes are those that give access to a low personal income tax rate on offshore financial assets and do not require an individual to spend a significant amount of time in the location offering the scheme. Financial Institutions are required to take the outcome of the OECD's analysis of high-risk CBI/RBI schemes into account when performing their CRS due diligence obligations.

The OECD has analysed over 100 CBI/RBI schemes, offered by CRS-committed jurisdictions, identifying the following schemes that potentially pose a high-risk to the integrity of CRS.
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